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MLA Style 9th edition: Other Common Sources

This guide covers the basics of MLA Style writing, formatting, and citing.


Typically, there are two types of interviews: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews. It is possible for interviews to appear in similar formats such as in email format or as a Web document.

Personal Interviews

Personal interviews are the ones you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the phrase Personal interview and the date of the interview.

Jones, Virdo. Personal interview. 12 May 2020.

Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast)

List the interview by the full name of the interviewee unless the name is part of a larger work like a book, TV program, or film series. In those cases, place the title of the interview in quotation marks and the title of the larger work in italics. If the interview appears as an independent title, italicize it. If using a book, include the author or editor name after the book title.

*If the interview from which you’re quoting doesn’t include a title, add the phrase, Interview by after the interviewee’s name and before the interviewer’s name.

Powell, Devona. Interview with Victor Rodriguez. Rural Roundabout, vol. 15, no. 2, 2017, pp. 52-68.

Online-only Published Interviews

List the interview by the interviewee’s name. If there’s a title, put it in quotation marks. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive web content. Italicize the name of the website, provide the publisher name (or sponsor), the publication date, and the URL.

Sandobar, Ferdinand. Interview by Bailey Birkenstock. Blues and Views, 21 Feb. 2014, Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.


Films or Movies

Cite films by their title, director’s name, film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names following the director’s name.

A Heart Apart. Directed by Sarah O’Brien and Joe Wilcox, performances by Alan Atwood, Jeremiah Oster, Sally Marsh, and Joan Zizek, Dirt Road Films, 1983.

To focus on specific performers or directors, start with the name followed by their title.

Sinclair, Almanzo, director. A Lost Moment in Time: Dead Dreams. Filmore Films, 1968.

Television Show

Recorded Television Episodes

Cite recorded TV episodes the same way as films. Begin with the name of the episode in quotation marks. Follow with the series name italicized. If the collection title of recordings differs from the original series, list the title that best helps researchers locate the recording. Provide the distributor name followed by the distribution date.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

Visit the ERC

Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (including conference presentations)

Begin by typing the speaker’s name. Provide the title of the speech in quotation marks and follow with the conference or meeting title and name of organization. Provide the venue and its city (if the city is not listed in the venue). Use the appropriate descriptor (e.g., Address, Lecture, Reading, Keynote, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation) for the type of the presentation.

Alberts, Joe. “Communication in the Workplace.” Improving Productivity in the 21st Century, 6 Dec. 2 2013, Self Creek Motel, New Hope, TX. Guest Lecture.

Published Conference Proceedings

When citing published conference proceedings, use the book format. If the date and location of the conference aren’t part of the published title, you can include that information after the title.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title, Conference Date

          and Location, Publisher, Date of Publication.

To cite a presentation from published conference proceedings, start with the presenter's name. Include the presentation's title in quotation  marks. Conclude with publication information for the proceedings.


A Song or Album

There are multiple ways in which to cite music. It depends on the container that the music was accessed from. Typically, citations begin with the artist’s name. The citation may also be listed by composers or performers. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Include individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the recording manufacturer’s name followed by the publication date.


Al Boyne. “Chills.” Ice, Montgomery Records, 2021. Spotify,

Online Album

Radonae. “Never Let Me Fly.” Lost Dreams, Caribou Sounds, 2003,


Profound. "Tears in the Gutter." Soil Green, Green, 1999.

Broadcast TV or Radio Program

Cite broadcast TV or radio programs by beginning with the episode title in quotation marks followed by the name of the series or program in italics. Include the network name, call letters of the station, and the date of broadcast and city.

"The Wrong Way." The Albertsons. Barter, KTNA, Little Rock, 10 Jul. 2003.


List the episode title in quotation marks and follow with the series name in italics.

"Best of the Old West." The Good Ol' Times from ACT, 2 July     


Panel Discussions and Question-and-Answer Sessions

There is a distinction between a formal, rehearsed portion of a presentation and the informal discussion afterward. To format an entry for a panel discussion or question-and-answer session, list the panel members or speakers as authors by listing them first. Indicate the people are formally listed as panelists by following their names with a comma and kthe title “panelist(s).” Follow with the discussion title or simple description. If using a description, don’t capitalize. Follow this information with the conference or even title and end with the date and location.

Jones, Albert and Smith, Rhonda, panelists. Panel discussion. Open Resources Conference, 4 Mar. 2018, Connor Hall, Arizona University, Phoenix, AZ.

Treat recorded discussions as instances of the appropriate medium (e.g., cite a recording of a panel discussion hosted on YouTube like an ordinary online video.)

A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph

Provide the name of the artist, the title of the artwork in italics, and the date of composition. Include the institution’s name that houses the artwork followed by the institution’s location.

Hernandez, Alberto. The Silent Muse. 1883, Lateral Museum, Berlin.

To cite photographic reproductions of artwork, use the book or website as a container. For a second container, the title is listed before the contributors. Cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the source’s information in which the photograph appears, including the page or reference numbers.

Hernandez, Alberto. The Silent Muse. 1880, Lateral Museum. A Streak in Time 8th ed., by Angela Updike and Theodore Asher, Smith Publishing, p. 452.

If the artwork was located on the museum’s website, cite the website’s name as the container and include the publisher and the URL at the end of the citation. Don’t include the publisher information if it’s the same as the website’s name. Use a period after the date instead of a comma because the date refers to the painting’s original creation, rather than to its publication.

Hernandez, Alberto. The Silent Muse. 1883. Lateral Museum,

If the artwork was located on the museum’s website, cite the website’s name as the container and include the publisher and the URL at the end of the citation. Don’t include the publisher information if it’s the same as the website’s name. Use a period after the date instead of a comma because the date refers to the painting’s original creation, rather than to its publication.

Hernandez, Alberto. The Silent Muse. 1883. Lateral Museum,

Netflix, Hulu, Google Play

When citing a specific episode, include the episode title, series name, season, episode number, network name and date.

“The One Where She Dies.” Perseus Unbound, season 1, episode 11, ABC, 27 Mar. 2019. Netflix,

Citation is Important

A TV Series

When citing the entire series of a TV show, use the format below:

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

A Specific Performance or Aspect of a TV Show

To emphasize a specific aspect of a show, include that information. If you’re writing about a character during a certain episode, include the performer’s name as well as the creator’s.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Follow the format below to emphasize a specific character throughout the show’s run time.

Poehler, Amy, performer. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2009-2015.