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APA Style 7th edition: In-text Citation Basics

This guide covers stylistics of writing, formatting, and citing in APA Style 7th edition

In-text Citation Basics for APA Style 7th ed.

Use the author-date method of in-text citation in APA Style. If there is a known author, their last name and the year of publication for the resource appears in the text. EX: Extensive literature addressing reasons that internal migration is available (Artz, 2005). 

When referring to an idea from another source but without directly quoting the information, cite the author and year of publication, but not the page number in the in-text citation. This rule also applies to any reference to an article or other source. See example above.

When directly quoting from another work, include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. For one page, use the abbreviation "p." and for multiple pages, use the abbreviation "pp." before listing the page number(s). For page ranges, use an en dash.

EX: Any loss of skilled workers is a concern in rural communities because growth is not generated (Artz, 2005, p.9).

Many rural counties experience population loss; however, research shows that rural America is still thriving (Artz, 2005, pp. 6-7).





ALWAYS capitalize proper nouns and author initials!
When referring to a source title in your paper, capitalize words that consist of four letters or more.
*There are exceptions to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adverbs, and adjectives. 
Capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word IF IT APPEARS IN A TITLE: On-Campus Events
After a dash or colon, capitalize the first word: "Initiating Change: The Road to Productivity"
If the title of a work is italicized in the reference list, italicize and use title case capitalization in the text: The Long Way Home
If the title of a work is NOT italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (remember the reference list uses sentence case): "Proofreading & Editing"


Long Quotations

Direct quotations consisting of 40 words or more should be included in a block of typed lines with omitted quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line and indent ½ inch from the left margin (use the TAB key as you would for normal indentation). Maintain double-spacing, but do not add extra blank lines before or after. Include the parenthetical citation AFTER the closing punctuation mark. Below is the format for a block quote in APA Style.
Using metaphysical condensation to conquer and control Indian tribes, specifically the Arawak, the Spaniards recited the following phrase, known as “The Requirement” in Spanish:
I implore you to recognize the Church as a lady and in the name of the Pope take the King as lord of this land and obey his mandates. If you do not do it, I tell you that with the help of God I will enter powerfully against you all. I will make war everywhere and every way that I can. I will subject you to the yoke and obedience to the Church and to his majesty. I will take your women and children and make them slaves. . .The deaths and injuries that you will receive from here on will be your own fault and not that of his majesty nor of the gentlemen that accompany me. (Loewen, 2014, p. 34)
Columbus and his men justified deliberate racial hatred through Christianity.

Summary or Paraphrase

When paraphrasing an idea from another work, refer to the author and year of publication only, (Omit page numbers), unless it is a long work in which a page range will help the reader find the information.
According to Kumari (2018), hiring multicultural candidates is crucial to organizational growth.
Employing multicultural candidates is crucial to organizational growth
(Kumari, 2018, p. 43).

Short Quotations

For direct quotes, include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference. (Use “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for multiple pages. Separate page numbers with an en dash.
Introducing the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
EX: According to Smith (2005), “primary examples of success include effective communication” (p. 143).
EX: Smith (2005) found “primary examples of success include effective communication” (p. 143); what effect does this have on educational institutions?
If not including the author’s name in the sentence, include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
EX: He said, “Primary examples of success include effective communication” (Smith, 2005, p. 143).
EX: He said, “Primary examples of success include effective communication” (Smith, 2005, p. 143), but institutions must be willing to define problems in communication.

Quotations from Sources Lacking Page Numbers

You may encounter sources that don’t include page numbers. When using direct quotations from those sources, reference another identifying element such as a paragraph, chapter, section, or something else.
EX: Smith (2005) found many reasons that organizations fail to communicate (paras. 2-3).
EX: A study of 20 businesses (Smith, 2005) led to sufficient data for evaluation (Table 2).