If the author is mentioned in a signal phrase-Smith (2005) mentions . . .
If the author is not named in the sentence- (Smith, 2005).
If there’s not an author for a source, cite the source by its title, either in a signal phrase or with the first word or two in the parenthetical citation.
When studying leadership, the behavioral approach assumes leader behaviors are influential (“Trait Theory,” 2009).
*NOTE-APA Style requires capitalizing important words in titles for in the text, but not in the reference list.
*NOTE-Book and report titles are italicized. Articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
When citing personal communication such as interviews, letters, emails, or other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator, the medium showing it is personal communication, and the date.
(R. Jennings, personal communication, February 3, 2020).
*NOTE-Do not include personal communication in the references page.
When citing an electronic source without page numbers, include information to help readers find the text being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 2), or a combination of these choices.
Hoyt (2006), … (Postindustrial Models section, para. 3).
*NOTE-Don’t use page numbers of webpages that are printed because different computers use different pagination. Don’t use Kindle location numbers either.
Whether listing author in a signal phrase or at the end of the sentence, name both authors. For in-text citation, use the word "and" between names. If using end of the sentence parenthetical citation- Use the ampersand.
Research by Arnold and Barr (1990) indicates...
(Arnold & Barr, 1990)
If citing a work by an organization or government agency, refer to the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time citing the source.
According to the Open Education Network (2019)…
If the organization uses a well-know abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time citing the source; use only the abbreviation in later citations.
First mention: (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], 1998)
Subsequent mentions: (NASA, 1998)
When using a source that was cited in another source, list the original source in a signal phrase. The secondary source should be listed in your reference page and include the secondary source in parentheses. If a year is noted for the original source, include it.
Smith stated that… (as cited in Srameck, 2002, p. 45).
(Smith, 2006, as cited in Srameck, 2002, p. 45).
Include the first author’s name and follow with “et al.” in every citation.
Smith et al. (2005) recommend…
(Smith et al., 2005).
When writing “et al.” place a period after “al” but not “et.”
Et al. is plural so only use it if there are more than two authors.
Every now and then, a source will have two authors with the same last name. To handle this, use first initials with the last names to prevent confusion.
(J. Smith, 2005; R. Smith, 2002)
When citing an introduction or preface, include the author(s) and year as in a basic in-text citation.
(Smith & Allen, 1981)
When using a source that doesn’t list an author or date, list the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “n.d.” to note “no date”).
Research revealed that Rost’s work challenges organizations to clearly distinguish between industrial paradigms and postindustrial paradigms (“Postindustrial Paradigm,” n.d.).
*NOTE-On the References page, list the full title, which in this case is: “The Postindustrial Paradigm of Leadership.”