Electronic sources include websites, emails, films, television programs, social media, podcasts and radio broadcasts, online journals and eBooks.
Some electronic citations require the use of brackets. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. APA 7th edition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs. The exception is for unarchived resources. For this exception, including the retrieval date lets readers know that the version they access may differ from what was originally used.
If there is an individual author, cite their name first.
Lastname, A. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
James, J. (2014, April 1). The long way around the barn. Journeys. https://emotions.journeys.com
If a publication date isn’t listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
Author or Group name. (n.d.). Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL
Zombie Herders Unite. (n.d.). World zombie. https://www.zombie.org/ZombieWorld/Zombie-herders-unite/
If an article doesn’t have a DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an article has no DOI and is published on a database, don’t include a URL or any database information. There is an exception for databases that publish articles in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database.
Jones, C. (1992). Declining health: You are what you eat. UpToDate. Retrieved November 1, 2013, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/declining-health-you-are-what-you-eat
If the eBook or audiobook is identical to a physical version, it’s not necessary to note the format. If the content differs, distinguish between eBook, audiobook, or print version.
Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. URL
Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL
Lastname, A. BM. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)
(If an edition isn’t available-skip that step)
Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of entry. In A. B. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI
Arnold, M. (2016). Dogs. In L. A. Schintler & C. L. McNeely (Eds), Encyclopedia of big data. SpringerLink. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32001-4_7-1
Don’t cite standard software such as MS Word or Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Lastname, A. B. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL
Cobalati. (2019). Cobal companion (Version 1.2.0). Cobalt Systems Co. https://www.cobalt.com/products/Cobalcompanion/
Like personal interviews, emails are not included in the list of references, but be sure to parenthetically cite them in the main text.
(R. Ryan, personal communication, February 3, 2019).
Lastname, A. B. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL
Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1p32dl/
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
*NOTE- If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.
UA Cossatot Educational Resource Center. (2020, March 10). Reaching tutors during campus closure [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/UACERC/photos/
Lastname, A. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL
Smith, A. (2018, October 12). An examination: Culture war is expanding. Cultural Divide, Wordpress. https://www.wordpress.org/sections/culturaldivide/
Lastname, A. B. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
UA Cossatot (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved March 10, 2022 from https://www.facebook.com/uacossatot/
Lastname, A. B., & Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI
Hess, R., Andes, C. T., & Adams, R. A. (2003). Complicated bereavement. Psychology Today, 21(2), 122-131. https://doi.org/13.1114/apr.20101
Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL
Wagner, R. [Tutor]. (2022, July 21). Academic success [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RWrJCQDPrw&r=136s
*NOTE- The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name and username are the same, omit the [Username].
If there isn’t an author, use the name of the group or organization as the author. If the group author and site name are identical, remove the site name.
Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
American Association of Retired Persons. (2013, December 3). Age discrimination: It’s a problem. https://www.aarp.org/newsagediscriminationrevealed/
Cite Wikipedia articles much as you would cite a generic webpage.
Title of article. (Year, Month Date). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page
Climate change. (2014, December 4). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change
Wikipedia articles change often. The date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Be sure to look at the dates closely.
APA 7th edition doesn’t provide guidance on citing abstracts. If you’re only using information from the abstract, but also have access to the article, add “[Abstract]” after the article name. If the article text isn’t available, use the available abstract through an abstracts database as a secondary source.
If there isn’t a specific publication date, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date.
Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. URL
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Gobbledygook. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gobbledygook
Lastname, A. B. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Open Education Network [@OEN]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved October 31, 2020, from https://twitter.com/oen
Lastname, A. B. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL
*NOTE- If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.
National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154
Lastname, A. B. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
UACOSSATOT[@uac]. (2020, January 12). Students save money at home [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7OkUacBcua/
IMPORTANT: If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is available, use that instead of a URL because URLs often change.
If citing from a site with an associataed newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the newspaper title.
Lastname, A. D. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL
Smith, A. (2014, November 14). Best songs of 2013: Adele revealed. New York Times. https://www.newyorktimes.com/entertainment/music/best-songs-2013-adele-revealed/2014/12/06/6e82c5ec-15d8-11ea-a659-7d69641c6ff7_story.html
IF the source doesn’t come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the article title, but leave the site’s name unformatted.
Lastname, B. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL
Adams, J. (2003, June 12). Why people are building tiny houses. THU. https://www.thu.com/surviving/article/20200113-why-people-are-building-tiny-houses
If the page’s author isn’t listed, begin with the title. Include a retrieval date in the event that the page’s content may change over time, such as in a wiki.
Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Open resources. (2016, January 30). Opennews. Retrieved May 3, 2019, from
Cite the interview in the text only (not in the reference list) if the interview isn’t retrievable in audio or print form. Provide the month, day, and year as an in-text citation. If the interview transcript is published, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:
Sabbatini, G. (1993, September 10). Musical performance of Giuseppe Sabbatini [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/musical-performance-giuseppe-sabbatini?t=NaN%2CNaN&a=%2C
If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:
Cruise, T. W. (1990, September 17). Interview with a vampire [Interview]. Vampire Association Radio Archive; The Vampire History Museum.
When citing online lecture notes, provide the file format in brackets after the title (PowerPoint slides, Microsoft Word document).
Lastname, A. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL
Bernahan, C. (2013, November 4). Making OER easy for the educator [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/education/making-oer-easy-for-the-educator-by-sharonda-adams-at-southeast-uc-2013
Include the organization or individual’s name followed by the date and the title. If a title isn’t available, provide a brief explanation of the type of data included and the form in which it appears in brackets. Include the URL and the retrieval date if the publication date isn’t available.
Lo, I. (2016, May 3.). Asthma symptom recognition [Infographic]. Behance. https://www.behance.net/gallery/36728473/Infographic-Asthma-Symptom-Recognition
Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of University of Arkansas-Cossatot Community College De Queen Campus]. Retrieved March 11, 2022, from https://www.google.com/maps/place/University+of+Arkansas+ Cossatot+Community+College+De+Queen+Campus/
Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.
Yeargan, J. T. (2021). Gynocentric perceptions of misogynistic literature (Publication No. 2213552112) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Lastname, A. D. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL
Paris, T., Kim, J., & Davis, C. (2015). EEG responses to two contexts of AV speech presentation [Data set]. Western Sydney University. http://doi.org/10.4225/35/54bf146fa4012
Author, A. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL
Hill, G. (2017, May). Making the grade [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/naif_G hill_making the grade#g-5202
Or (if on YouTube)
Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL
Tedx Talks. (2012, Dec. 12). TEDxSouthwesternstate – Cal Hooper - How I moved past the grief[Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AudxeFcAsrR
Host, B. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. URL
Smith, A. (Host). (2016, April 17). Calling all the truth-tellers [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. ABCU Studios. https://www.abcustudios.org/story/calling-all-the-truth-tellers